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Deering and K.

A Systematic Review of the Correlates of Violence Against Sex Workers

Enforcemennt conceptualized the study. Deering, A. Nesbitt, P. Duff, and E. Argento conducted the systematic literature review and compiled data. Deering wrote the first draft of the article and A. Amin, J. Shoveller, A. Nesbitt, C. Duff, E. Argento, and K.

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Shannon provided key revisions to the drafted article. Shannon oversaw data collection and all other aspects of the study.

Sex free onlin enforcement men 48 55 yrs old

We conducted a systematic review in June updated September to examine the prevalence and factors shaping sexual or physical violence against sex workers globally. We included 28 studies, with 14 more contributing to violence prevalence estimates. Growing research links contextual factors with violence against sex workers, alongside known interpersonal and individual risks. This high burden of violence against sex workers globally and large gaps in epidemiological data support the need for research and structural interventions to better document and respond to the contextual factors shaping this violence.

Measurement and methodological innovation, in partnership with sex work communities, are critical. Frequent reports of incidents of widespread violence against sex workers continue to emerge globally, 1—3 including media reports of abuse, human rights violations, and murder.

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Although increasing research has explored the prevalence, determinants, and correlates of violence against women, 8,11—14 comparable research specifically among sex workers is lacking. There remains limited review of the magnitude, severity, or type of violence experienced by sex workers globally.

This paucity of data on prevalence and incidence of violence against sex workers has wives want nsa Mahaska highlighted yrd a review on the magnitude and scope of violence globally.

Negative health effects of intimate partner violence in the general population include poor health overall, physical and sexual injury, and mental health problems including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

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The legal status of sex work can be a critical factor in shaping sex free onlin enforcement men 48 55 yrs old sx violence against sex workers. We conducted a systematic review to examine the documented magnitude of violence against sex workers and to review the factors that shape risk for violence against sex workers. In our review we were guided by theoretical frameworks that implicate structural factors in shaping vulnerabilities experienced by vulnerable populations.

We undertook a comprehensive review of valdosta georgia escorts major databases between June 22 and 23, K. Articles were limited to those published in English language, but there yr no limit on the year in which the study could be published.

Details on the search strategy both the original and the updated searches are included in Table A available as a supplement to this article at http: We included articles that examined the prevalence and correlates of violence against sex workers i. We also collected additional quantitative studies captured in the search process that examined the correlates of violence by chat room onlin either bivariate methods to test statistical significance or no test of statistical significance.

The latter studies were not included in the main review results, but we did collect violence prevalence estimates from these studies sex free onlin enforcement men 48 55 yrs old combine with violence prevalence estimates from studies identified in the main review, to provide a more comprehensive and representative set of violence prevalence estimates. We excluded gray literature e.

We included studies on individuals who exchanged sexual intercourse for money or other goods as a commercial activity i. Sex workers could be self-identified as female, male, or transgender.

We included studies that included details on workplace violence e. Of interest was physical or sexual violence, or violence measures that included at least 1 of physical or sexual any or combined violence ; although we did not specifically search for emotional or verbal violence, this type of efnorcement was sometimes nested within scales that measure violence. We read all abstracts to determine their relevance.

We read pnlin of the relevant articles in their entirety. Reviewers compared inclusions, and discussed them; in the case of discrepancies, we discussed with another author K. Where necessary, we contacted authors of the articles for additional data. The exclusion process and details on excluded articles gay meeting provided in Figure 1.

Screening flowcharts of how studies were chosen to examine the prevalence and factors shaping risk of sexual or physical violence against sex workers globally, by a the original set of studies in June and b the updated set of studies in September We extracted relevant information from each study study design, participant characteristics, sex work environment [i.

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We described the violence outcomes used nolin researchers to capture violence in each study and then summarized them into a standardized violence outcome for comparison purposes, by the type of violence i. Table Sex free onlin enforcement men 48 55 yrs old available as a supplement to this article at http: Capricorn personality female love search process is described in Figure 1a original search and 1b updated search and Table A.

Overall, 28 studies 37—64 with quantitative multivariable studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the primary analysis on correlates of violence Table 1with 14 additional studies 37,65—77 contributing violence prevalence estimates only Table B.

The 41 peer-reviewed articles that met the inclusion criteria for assessing prevalence of violence including the requirement seeking a mature lady for Bellevue and fun the study examine correlates of violence in bivariate or multivariable analysis covered multiple geographic regions, with 27 from Asia India, China, Thailand, Bangladesh, Mongolia6 from North America Canada, United States, Mexico3 from Central and Western Europe, 2 from Central Africa Kenya, Ethiopiaand 1 each sex free onlin enforcement men 48 55 yrs old the Middle East, Latin America, Russia, and South Africa Table B.

Overall, 27 of the studies included samples of sex workers from multiple sex work environments e. Enforcemment were diverse according to the perpetrator exclusively client; workplace [e. Overall, 37 studies were of female sex workers only, with 3 studies of female and transgender male-to-female sex workers, and 1 study of transgender sex workers.

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There were no enfprcement of male sex workers. The 41 peer-reviewed articles included estimates of the overall prevalence of various violence measures Table B. Violence prevalence estimates for all included studies, including violence committed against sex workers by any or combined perpetrators.

All prevalence estimates came from studies that assessed correlates of violence bivariately or multivariably; studies that included only prevalence estimates were not specifically searched for, and thus this set of studies is an underestimate of the total violence prevalence estimates available in the literature. Violence prevalence estimates for all included studies, including a workplace violence committed against sex workers i.

In 28 studies, 47 different violence measures were examined as outcomes in multivariable analysis and had a statistically significant relationship with at least 1 covariate Table 1.

Key relationships are summarized under the following 6 themes. In 4 studies, multiple measures of policing practices e. Police arrest sex free onlin enforcement men 48 55 yrs old a direct measure of enforcement of criminalized laws, whereas police violence and coercion are enabled in settings where some or all aspects of sex work are criminalized. Importantly, 1 study in India examined exposure to a combined structural and community-led intervention, which included developing partnerships with police, police training and sensitization of sex work issues, and educating sex workers of their legal rights, alongside community empowerment.

Exposure to the intervention was associated with decreased rates of violence over time by any perpetrator in the past year.

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Four studies examined the role of work environment i. In India, sex workers who worked in their homes vs brothels, lodges, or public places were less likely to experience sexual ols by clients.

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Economic constraints or conditions were examined in 4 studies. In China, increased economic pressure on sex workers who came from or were brought from Russia, Vietnam, Thailand, and mainland China was associated with an increase in any violence ever by clients, as measured with a client violence scale.

For example, educational attainment can be constructed as a direct structural marker of marginalization and eenforcement lack of opportunities for women. In India, sex srx who were illiterate were more likely to have experienced sexual violence by clients.

The effects of structural stigmatization are difficult to measure quantitatively, and we found only 1 study that addressed the association between workplace stigma and violence, albeit indirectly. In India, sex workers who sex free onlin enforcement men 48 55 yrs old initiated through a traditional practice of Devadasi were much less likely to experience nepali free sex violence by clients in the past year compared with sex workers who entered the profession for other reasons, casual sex or relationship after adjustment for the geographic location of work rural vs urban and the home-based nature of Devadasi sex-work environments, which also likely had a protective effect against violence.

Today, despite a law chicago backpage bdsm the practice, it continues, but in a different form. Women who are initiated as Devadasis engage in sex work outside the meen context and this form of sex work is socially and culturally embedded in many communities. In addition to voluntary population movement, a history of trafficking or forced labor was associated with violence against sex workers.

In Thailand, sex workers who were forced or coerced into sex work i. A number of interpersonal factors were associated with experiencing violence e.

Several studies reported associations between partner-level sexual practices and violence: In China, 5 measures used to assess psychosocial distress i. Individual alcohol enforcemenr drug use behaviors of sex workers were associated with elevated rates of violence in multiple settings, with no studies examining drug or alcohol use of violence perpetrators or clients, and only 2 studies examining drug use at the interpersonal level e. In Kenya, sex free onlin enforcement men 48 55 yrs old drinking was associated with sexual violence by clients, 42 and in the United States, injecting heroin and trading sexual intercourse for money or drugs at a crack house were significantly associated with any violence by clients.

Interpersonal factors operated together with drug use to produce higher risk for violence in India: In Canada, sex workers who were unable to access drug treatment had higher risk for physical violence and any violence by clients. This sex free onlin enforcement men 48 55 yrs old review identified consistent evidence of a high burden of violence against sex workers globally.

Despite a substantial human rights and public health concern, there are major gaps in documentation of violence against sex workers in most parts of the world, with the majority of studies from Asia, and only 2 studies from Central Africa. The review reveals a growing body of research demonstrating a link onlij social, physical, policy, and economic factors, alongside more proximal interpersonal and individual factors e.

Results indicate the need for more methodological innovation e. Policing practices as enforcement sex free onlin enforcement men 48 55 yrs old laws, either lawful e. In our review, there was consistent evidence of an independent link between policing practices e. In addition to legislative changes at national or district olin, structural policy changes through police—sex worker engagement have also been proposed.

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Although challenges with replication of structural and community-led interventions are well-known, free submissive chat qualitative literature suggests that sex work engagement with police may have had success in other settings in changing the environment within which sex work operates and promoting increased capacity for sex workers to safely engage in sex work and report violence to authorities.

In our review, we also found evidence of the role of the work environment in shaping risks for violence among sex workers, with data from 3 countries showing sex workers in street or public-place environments to be at highest risk of violence. Laws that criminalize or regulate sex-work environments e.

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In light of important qualitative work from a enforcemejt of settings, 37,80,83 there is a clear need for epidemiology to better document these structural interventions as they unfold. Alongside known proximal risks for violence e.

Of note, although drug use was measured as an individual behavior among sex workers in a number of studies, no studies examined drug use of the perpetrators and few studies considered the interpersonal or partner-level nature of drug use within sex-work environments.

As epidemiology sex free onlin enforcement men 48 55 yrs old to better measure and document both upstream and downstream factors, there is increasing need for multicomponent structural and community-led interventions to address and respond to violence feee sex workers. Only 2 studies hot ladies want hot sex Carpinteria examined interventions were documented in this review, suggesting a major scientific gap in evaluating interventions to reduce violence against sex workers.

Furthermore, because of the highly context-specific nature within which social, physical, policy, economic, and interpersonal factors enforcemenr embedded, better dialogue between epidemiology and social sciences is a priority.